since 1994 release
Repair and operation of the car
- Cars of the Skoda Felicia brand
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, tool and equipment of a workplace
Operations procedure in extreme situations
Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
Change of wheels
Poddomkrachivaniye and towage
Identification of leaks
Checks of readiness of the car for operation
Automobile chemicals, oils and lubricants
Diagostika of malfunctions of knots and systems of the car
Features of traffic regulations of the countries of Europe
+ Maintenance instruction
+ Routine maintenance
+ Repair of the engine
+ Cooling systems, heating
+ Power supply system
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body and finishing of salon
+ Onboard electric equipment
Technology of service, tool and equipment of a workplace
Sizes/marking of a class of durability of standard (SAE and USS) bolts
Sizes/marking of a class of durability of metric bolts
Technology of service
There are several techniques of performing procedures of maintenance and car repairs on which the reader will find references in the text of this manual. Following will make by it work of the amateur mechanic of more effective, will allow to organize in the best way and to qualitatively perform various technical procedures and will be the key to careful and full implementation of all necessary works.
Fixture are called nuts, bolts, hairpins and screws serving for connection among themselves of two or more details. During the work with fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any carving fixture this or that type of the kontryashchy and stopping devices is applied. It can be lock washers, lock-nuts, lock tags or the fixing compound for carvings. All used fixture has to be absolutely pure and direct, with an undisturbed carving and not rounded corners of six-sided heads which the wrench is put on. It is necessary to take for the rule without fail to make replacement of the damaged nuts and bolts by new. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to reuse as at an otdavaniye lose the kontryashchy properties and at assembly always have to be replaced.
The "stuck" fixture for the purpose of simplification of unscrewing and in order to avoid damage before an otdavaniye have to be processed by the special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use turpentine which is convenient for putting from a special small canister with a long nose for this purpose. After wetting of fixture by the getting structure, it is necessary to give to structure within several minutes properly to impregnate the oxidized contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down by a chisel, is cut by a hacksaw or removed by means of a special gaykolom.
When cutting a head of a bolt or oblamyvaniya of a hairpin on assembly, the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of a special extractor. Most auto repair shops can undertake performance by this, also as well as others (for example, restoration of the stripped thread in carving openings), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assembly have to be established always into place in the original provisions. Always replace the damaged washers with new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic it is always necessary to establish flat washers.
For many reasons manufacturers of cars use metric fixture more and more widely. However, it is important to know a difference between used sometimes standard (called also American, or the SAE standard) and more universal in system of measures metric fixture as, despite external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts, both standard, and metric are classified by diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the standard bolt 1/2 - 13 x 1 has an inch floor in the diameter, 13 rounds of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. The metric bolt of M12 - 1.75 x 25 has diameter of 12 mm, a carving step (distance between the next rounds) 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are externally almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs, both metric, and standard bolts can be identified by survey of a head. For a start, the distance between lyska of a head of a metric bolt is measured in mm whereas at standard - in inches (the same is fair also for nuts). As a result, the standard wrench does not suit for use with metric fixture and vice versa. Besides, on heads of the most part of standard bolts usually there are radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more the quantity of notches, the are higher admissible effort (on cars bolts of a class of durability from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code. Figures of a code are usually cast, as on standard fixture, on a bolt head (on cars bolts of classes of durability 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9 are usually applied).
Also, on durability class tags, standard nuts can be distinguished from metric. Dot tags, proshtampovyvayemy on one of face surfaces of a nut while marking of metric nuts is made by means of besides digital code are applied to identification of a class of durability of standard nuts. The quantity of points, or the more value of a digital code is more, the admissible effort of tightening of a nut is higher.
End faces of metric hairpins are also marked according to a class of their durability. The digital code whereas on smaller have marking in the form of geometrical figures is applied on large hairpins.
It is necessary to notice that a considerable part of fixture, in particular the class of durability from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case the only way of difference of standard fixture from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or comparison of a carving with unambiguously identified.
Standard fixture is often called also, contrary to metric, SAE standard fixture, however, it is necessary to remember that under classification of SAE only small fixture gets. Large fixture with not metric carving is fixture of the American standard (USS).
As fixture of the same geometrical size (both standard, and metric) can have various classes of durability, when replacing on the car of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay attention to compliance of a class of durability of the installed new fixture to a class of durability of old.
Procedure and order of tightening of threaded connections
Tightening of the most part of threaded connections should be made with the efforts determined by requirements of the Specifications provided in the beginning of each Chapter of the present manual (it is necessary to understand the torque enclosed to it when tightening as effort of tightening of fixture). Tightening with excessive effort can lead to violation of integrity of fixture whereas the nedotyagivaniye leads it to unreliability of connection of the interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on material of which they are made also diameter of a carving part usually have strictly certain admissible efforts of tightening, many of which as it was already mentioned above, are given in Specifications at the beginning of each Chapter. Strictly adhere to the provided recommendations about efforts of tightening of fixture used on the car. For tightening of fixture which is not mentioned in Specifications it is necessary to use the map of the admissible moments given below. The values given in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture allows tightening with big effort), besides, it is meant that tightening dry (with an ungreased carving) fixture screwed in a steel or cast (not aluminum) detail is made.
Sizes of metric carvings
Sizes of pipe carvings
Sizes of carvings of the American standard
Fixture located on perimeter of any detail (such as bolts of a head of cylinders, the pallet of a case and various covers) in order to avoid deformation of a detail has to be given and drag on in strictly certain order. The order of tightening and an otdavaniye of such fixture is given in the corresponding Heads of the Management. If the special order is not stipulated, then in order to avoid a component curvature, it is necessary to adhere to the instruction given below. At the first stage all bolts or nuts have to be tightened by hand. Further, each of them has to be in turn held on on one whole revolution, and transition of odes of one bolt / nut to another has to be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first bolt / nut, it is necessary to repeat the procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half-turn. Continue the procedure, tightening each bolt / nut this time already on a quarter of a turn for one approach until all of them are not tightened with the required effort. At an otdavaniye of fixture it is necessary to work in a similar manner, but upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components has to be carried out in such manner that at installation each detail could be established on the former place and the correct image. Remember characteristic external features of knot, in case of need, you make landing marking of details which installation can be into place made ambiguously (for example, the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft). Placement of the removed details on a pure working surface in that order in what their removal was made will be the good idea. Useful will be also a drawing up the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photography of the component which is subject to dismantle.
At an otdavaniye of fixture try to make marking of its initial situation on assembly. Often, installation of fixture and washers on the former place right after removal of the corresponding detail allows to avoid confusion at assembly. In the absence of such opportunity, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose the box broken into sections and appropriately marked, or just on the separate marked boxes. Such line of action is especially useful during the work with the components consisting of a set of fine details such as carburetor, generator, valvate mechanism, dashboard or elements of a decorative upholstery of salon.
At a detachment of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to pay attention to marking of wires or plaits by means of an adhesive tape with the digital or alphabetic code applied on it.
On all cars sealing laying is applied to sealing of the place of a joint of the interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serves for prevention of leak of oils and liquids and maintenance in assembly of elevated pressure or depression.
Often such laying before installation becomes covered by a liquid or pastelike sealing compound (sealant). Often under the influence of time, temperatures or pressure there is so strong "prikipaniye" of the interfaced surfaces to each other that division of details becomes an exigeant task. With many cases the successful partition of such knots is helped by an otstukivaniye of components outside on joint perimeter the hammer with soft brisk. It is possible to use for this purpose as well the ordinary hammer, striking blows through a wooden or plastic pro-rate. It is not necessary to make an obstukivaniye of cast cases and fragile components. At emergence of such difficulties always first of all check whether all fixture is removed.
Avoid a podrychazhivaniye of details by means of the screw-driver or mount entered into the area of a joint as sealing surfaces at the same time can be easily damaged that will lead further to development of leaks. If the podrychazhivaniye of the "stuck" elements of assembly is not possible to avoid, use for this purpose the handle from old wit, but rumple that they after all formed chips have to be carefully removed both from the interfaced surfaces, and from within assembly.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces have to be smoothed carefully out with scraping of traces of material of old laying. The hardened fragments can be previously softened by means of rust solvent or the special chemical composition then are removed from the interfaced surface with a scraper. As a scraper in this case the piece of a copper tube with the flattened-out and pointed end can be used. Use for this purpose of copper tube is recommended as copper is usually softer than the materials applied in cars that reduces risk of damage of the interfaced surface. The remains of some laying easily can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, regardless of the applied method, the interfaced surfaces have to become absolutely pure and dry. If for any reason the interfaced surface was damaged, before assembly of components fill defects with pro-masonry sealant. In most cases it is necessary to use noncongealable (or partially stiffening) sealant.
Councils for removal of hoses
Measures of precautions which should be observed at removal of hoses are very close to those at dismantle of laying. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes on which the ends of hoses as it can be the reason of development of leaks stretch. In a special measure the last belongs to the procedure of removal of hoses of a radiator. Owing to various chemical reactions happening in a path of the cooling system often occurs "prikipany" rubbers of hoses to the interfaced surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For removal of a hose first of all weaken a collar of fastening it on the union. Then nippers grasp a hose near a collar and begin to rotate it on the union / a connecting branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue implementation of the procedure before liberation of a hose, then remove a hose from the union. A small amount of the silicone or other lubricant entered into a gap between the union and a hose will facilitate work. Before installation of a hose grease its internal surface, adjacent to an end face, and also the external surface of the union with solution of soap water or a small amount of silicone lubricant.
As the last resort, or in case of unambiguous need of replacement of a hose by the new, put-on the union end of a hose can be knifed and then is separated from the surface of the union. At the same time try not to damage a knife union metal / a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage of a hose collar, replace it with new. Collars of the twisted type usually weaken eventually therefore, regardless of a state, as required it is better to replace them with collars of screw type.
Selection of the high-quality tool is one of fundamental requirements for everyone who plans independent performing procedures of maintenance or car repairs. At first sight, the expenses connected with acquisition of the required set of tools can seem incommensurably big, however at their comparison with the expenses interfaced to performing procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs at car repair shop will be quite reasonable.
To help the average amateur mechanic with selection of the tool necessary at holding various procedures for care of the car described in this manual three lists of tools which are conditionally entitled as are given below: Tool kit for routine maintenance and the minimum repair; Tool kit for the general and capital repairs; and Special tool. The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out mechanical works have to begin with performing procedures, the tools limited to application from the first list, improving at the same time skills and gradually expanding the range of the activity. In process of acquisition of skills, it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, gradually expanding the choice of the held tools. After a while the gained experience will allow to start performance of more complex works demanding use of the tool from the second list (for the general and capital repairs of the car). When qualification of the performer reaches rather high level and will begin to allow to save considerable means on independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tool kit on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list given below includes a minimum necessary for performing procedures of routine maintenance and insignificant car repairs of tools. Authors of the present manual recommend to begin with acquisition of a set of the combined wrenches (from ordinary Rozhkova with a head on one end and with cap on another). Despite the considerable cost of this set in comparison with the cost of set of ordinary Rozhkov of keys, expense will be justified since such keys have advantages of both types.
· A set of the combined keys from 8 to 19 mm
· An adjustable spanner (to 35 mm)
· A candle key with a rubber insert (petrol models)
· The tool for adjustment of a candle gap (petrol models)
· Set of measuring probes
· The Nippelny key for pumping of brakes
With a flat sting (100 mm at 6 mm long in the diameter)
With a cross sting (100 mm at 6 mm long in the diameter)
· The combined flat-nose pliers
· A hacksaw with a set of cloths
· The pump for a rating of tires
· The manometer for measurement of pressure in tires
· Lubricant gun (syringe)
· A canister under oil
· Fine-grained emery paper
· Wire brush
· The tool for cleaning of plugs and contacts of wires of the battery
· A key for removal of an oil filter
· Funnel (average size)
· Props for fixing of the car in the lifted state (2)
· Drain capacity
Tool kit for the general and capital repairs of the car
This tool is necessary when carrying out any operations on repair of the engine of the car and is offered in addition to the first list. This list includes a complete set of replaceable face heads. At the considerable cost, a set of replaceable heads brings invaluable benefit, thanks to the universality and convenience in the address, in particular in combination with the drives which are included in the package of various type. It is recommended to give preference to drives with a section of 1/2 inches (but not 3/8 inches) since they, though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type of dynamometer keys (ideally, the good mechanic has to have both types of drives at the order). Cheaper alternative to a set of replaceable face heads is a set of tubular keys.
· A set of replaceable face heads (including heads like "TORH") (or tubular keys), the sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
· The ratchet reversive drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
· Collar 250 mm long
· The cardan drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
· A dynamometer key (with the drive of the same size, as for replaceable face heads)
· Самоконтрящиеся nippers
· The hammer with round brisk (about 230 g)
· The hammer with soft brisk (plastic or rubber)
With a flat sting (length of 150 mm and about 6.5 mm in the diameter)
With a flat sting (strong mm No. 2, 8)
With a cross sting (No. 3 x 8 inches (203 mm))
With a cross sting (strong No. 2)
· Clamping pincers
· Flat-nose pliers:
For electricians (with the isolated handles)
For lock rings (internal and external)
· A chisel on 25 mm
· The scraper (made from the copper tube which is flattened out and pointed since one end)
· Skrayber (chertilka)
· Center punch
· Small beards with a thin sting (1.6, 3.2, 4.8 mm)
· Set of hose clips
· Set for pumping of brakes
· The set verified
· Steel line / measuring instrument of planeness
· A set of prutkovy keys hexagons (Allen) (for heads with an internal hexagon)
· Set of files
· Wire brush (big)
· Second set of props
· Jack (hydraulic or scissors type)
· Carrying with the closed lamp shade
The tools which are adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding when using implementation of instructions of manufacturers get to this category the list. If the field of activity of the amateur mechanic does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool will be bad investment of capital - it will be more reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends or to hire as required in workshops of car service.
Only those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on service centers of representative offices of the companies manufacturers of cars are entered in the list. Sometimes in the text of the Management the reader will face links to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method allowing to avoid obligatory use of the remote tool. In case it is impossible to avoid use of the special tool, and its acquisition in use is problematic, it is better to entrust performance of the corresponding works to specialists of car service.
· The tool for compression of valvate springs
· The tool for grinding in of valves
· Device for a clearing of flutes of piston rings
· The tool for a staving of piston rings
· The tool for installation of piston rings
· The measuring instrument of extent of compression of gases in cylinders (компрессометр)
· A vertical drill for processing of edges of cylinders
· Hon for processing of mirrors of cylinders
· Measuring instrument of diameter of cylinders
· Micrometer (micrometers) and/or dial caliper
· The tool for centering of a clutch plate
· Extractor of spherical hinges
· Stripper of universal type
· Impact driver
· Set of the dial measuring instrument
· A stroboscope (with the inductive sensor)
· The manual combined pump (vacuum/delivery)
· Set of taps and lerok
· The tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker
· A universal tester for electric measurements
· Lifting rigging
· The tool for removal/installation of brake springs
· Floor jack
Acquisition of the tool
The beginner mechanic can be offered several practical advice in respect of acquisition of the necessary tool for performing procedures of routine maintenance and car repairs. By preparation for holding procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to buy the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of more large-scale works, it is simpler and more reliable to buy a set of the modern tool in shop of retail network. Acquisition of a set usually costs a little cheaper individual purchases and is often supplemented with the enclosed toolbox. Further, for choice expansion, separate tools, additional sets and a toolbox of the bigger size can be bought in addition. Gradual expansion of a set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in the choice of really necessary tools.
Specialized tool shops are the only source of acquisition of some special tools. Irrespective of the choice of a source, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at the choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as the term of their service for certain will be short. The expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool as a result will be incomparably more considerable, than costs of single acquisition of qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is valuable investment of capital therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After use of the tool, before folding to the place of storage, always carefully wipe its surface with pure dry rags, deleting traces of dirt, lubricant and the remains of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered. After completion of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car for existence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers, etc., the tool comb fixed in the convenient place on a garage wall is ideal. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The precision measuring tool has to be stored in inaccessible to impact of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of a working surface of the tool. A shock part quickly of the hammer in the course of use is subject to a rasklepyvaniye, screw-drivers lose sharpening of the stings over time. You do not stint to find a little time and attention to that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove rasklepa and to put the cutting edges in order. It is irreversible the worn-out or damaged tool in due time replace.
At careful leaving the tool will serve belief and the truth during very long term.
Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to remember the workplace equipment. If carrying out more serious work, than simple maintenance of the vehicle is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable working platform.
It is necessary to recognize that many motorists are forced to make dismantle of the engine and other similar works not in the conditions of a garage or a workshop. However, anyway the important requirement is existence of a roof or awning.
Whenever possible, any procedures for dismantling of parts of systems of the car have to be made on a pure workbench with a plain working surface, or a strong table of convenient height. The workbench has to be surely equipped with a vice with disclosure of sponges to 100 mm and with soft overlays for sponges.
As it was already mentioned above, on the working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, hard putties, paints and varnishes, etc. has to be equipped.
It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electric drill, therefore, the working platform has to be equipped with the power supply for its connection. Existence of a drill with the boss to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills considerably will facilitate holding many procedures.
At last, in a workplace always there has to be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся rags, intended for cleaning of the working platform, the tool and details of the car.
Working off should be handed over in the centers for utilization in a tight container.
Never you perform any works on the barefaced painted surface of body panels of the car, use protective overlays for wings, or, at the worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.